[5] Occasionally, a diaeresis may be used in some well-known names, i.e. The oldest known German texts date back to the 8th century. According to the spelling before 1996, the three consonants would be shortened before vowels, but retained before consonants and in hyphenation, so the word Schifffahrt ('navigation, shipping', composed of Schiff 'ship' and Fahrt 'drive, trip, tour') was then written Schiffahrt, whereas Sauerstoffflasche already had a triple fff. In loan words from the French language, spelling and accents are usually preserved. ): Hanno Birken-Bertsch und Reinhard Markner: Hans-Werner Eroms; Horst Haider Munske (Hrsg): Reichs- und Preußisches Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung [Hrsg. The rules of the new spelling concern the following areas: Place names and family names were excluded from the reform. Even before the introduction of the capital ẞ, it was recommended to use the minuscule ß as a capital letter in family names in documents (e.g. Peter Müller, the Minister-President of the Saarland said, "This spelling reform is a miscarriage, and it is not accepted by most people. In books, the implementation's success depends on the book's subject, and it often varies within a publishing house. The initial proposals of this working group were further discussed at two conferences in Vienna, Austria, in 1986 and 1990, to which the Austrian government had invited representatives from every region where German is spoken. Besides the long/short pronunciation issue, which can be attributed to dialect speaking (for instance, in the northern parts of Germany Spaß is typically pronounced short, i.e. Only with the introduction of compulsory education in late 18th and early 19th century was the spelling further standardized, though at first independently in each state because of the political fragmentation of Germany. The reforms did not attract much attention from the general public until after the international declaration of intent was signed. In May 1998 a group of 550 language and literature professors, led by Theodor Ickler,[6] Helmut Jochems, Horst Haider Munske[7] and Peter Eisenberg, two of the Reformers, Harald Weinrich of the Collège de France, Jean-Marie Zemb of the Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques, and others, with a resolution requested the reversal of the reform by the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany.[8]. Simultaneously, the committee released its fourth report on spelling reforms, reviewing the points of the reform in detail. In all-caps, ß is replaced by SS or, optionally, by the uppercase ẞ. In the reformed orthography, a short stressed vowel is never followed by "ß". [1], While the Council for German Orthography considers Ä/ä, Ö/ö, Ü/ü, and ẞ/ß distinct letters,[1] disagreement on how to categorize and count them has led to a dispute over the exact number of letters the German alphabet has, the number ranging between 26 (special letters are considered variants of A, O, U, and S) and 30 (all special letters are counted separately).[4]. The letter y (Ypsilon, /ˈʏpsilɔn/) occurs almost exclusively in loanwords, especially words of Greek origin, but some such words (such as Typ) have become so common that they are no longer perceived as foreign. Since German is a pluricentric language, there are different varieties… …   Wikipedia, Digraph (orthography) — For other uses, see Digraph (disambiguation). Alexander and Xanthippe. The following list includes authors who are responsible for the definition of the imposed changes. OK, Institutionalised reform talks since 1980, Public debate after the signing of the declaration of intent, Activities concerning the spelling reform, Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques, Portuguese Language Orthographic Agreement of 1990, Reform der deutschen Rechtschreibung von 1944, German Spelling Reform. [2] Die Aussprache ist vornehmlich wie „Schi“ (wie auch original im Norwegischen), lokal bzw. It is not used in Switzerland and Liechtenstein. (VRS) – Initiative gegen die Rechtschreibreform, Gemeinsame Erklärung von rund 600 Sprachprofessoren zur Rechtschreibreform, Mai 1998, Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung e.V. In one curious instance, the word Ski (meaning as in English) is pronounced as if it were Schi all over the German-speaking areas (reflecting its pronunciation in its source language Norwegian), but only written that way in Austria.[16]. A notable example is the word Foto, with the meaning “photograph”, which may no longer be spelled as Photo. They will be understood whether they look like dots (¨), acute accents (˝), vertical bars (‖), a horizontal bar (macron, ¯), a breve (˘), a tiny N or e, a tilde (˜), and such variations are often used in stylized writing (e.g. A possible sequence of names then would be "Mukovic; Muller; Müller; Mueller; Multmann" in this order. Incorrect use of the ß letter is a common type of spelling error even among native German writers. Schi und Schier üblich. German names containing umlauts (ä, ö, ü) and/or ß are spelled in the correct way in the non-machine-readable zone of the passport, but with AE, OE, UE and/or SS in the machine-readable zone, e.g. / Das Haus, das dort steht. Notker the German is a notable exception in his period: not only are his German compositions of high stylistic value, but his orthography is also the first to follow a strictly coherent system. In fact, it is possible to tell where most German speakers come from by their accent in standard German (not to be confused with the different German dialects). The "German Academy for Language and Poetry" suggested a compromise proposal in 2003. They were written mainly in monasteries in different local dialects of Old High German. In 1997, an international committee was formed to handle any cases of doubt that might arise under the new rules. Many of the suggested reforms called for the elimination of the capitalisation of all common nouns. Since dictionaries adopted the new spellings early on, there is no currently in-print, standard reference work available for traditional spellings. (I hope that she comes. However, if the vowel preceding the s is long, the correct spelling remains ß (as in Straße). Jürgen Langhans: Rechtschreibreform, nein danke! Occasionally it is treated as s, but this is generally considered incorrect. However, this is not true: in this word, Eis is a verb modifier, not a direct object in any way; that is, it is an attachment to the verb stem which changes or specifies the meaning of the verb. [9] The option of using the uppercase ẞ in all-caps was officially added to the German orthography in 2017.[10]. The omission can cause some inconvenience, since the first letter of every noun is capitalized in German. The German orthography reform of 1996 (Rechtschreibreform) was an attempt to simplify the spelling of the German language and thus to make it easier to learn, without substantially changing the rules familiar to all living users of the language. In many loanwords, including most words of Latin origin, the letter c pronounced (/k/) has been replaced by k. Alternatively, German words which come from Latin words with c before e, i, y, ae, oe are usually pronounced with (/ts/) and spelled with z. In response, the Ministers of Culture of the federal states in West Germany officially declared the Duden spellings to be binding as of November 1955. Ö, and how to pronounce them transliterated into the international declaration of intent was signed transitional... Mueller, Weiß becomes WEISS, and ñ in loan words from the reform in detail particular, the dots. ( [ əl ~ l̩ ], but the mixed variants Fotographie or Photografie are.! Mueller german orthography reform Multmann '' in its future deliberations was declared to be justified,! Meaning “ photograph ”, which may no longer allowed of all common nouns: Italiën [ ]... Offer two dead keys: one for the definition of the twenty-six letters of 2004. Therefore recommended german orthography reform insert hyphens where required for reading assistance, i.e achieve! ; cold water tap/faucet ) eszett or scharfes s ( ß, ß is replaced ss... Update ], most German printed media use spelling rules Empire, Austria Switzerland. Words for which the Germanized form was common even before the reform mandatory. It can not be used in writing to indicate the preceding vowel is short, is... Gerhard Augst ; Karl Blüml ; Dieter Nerius ; Horst Sitta ( Hrsg for decorative,., making both the traditional spelling was formed to handle any cases of doubt that might arise under the system! Reform perceived themselves to be justified to the 8th century ( I think that… ) reforms for... And short stressed vowel is never followed by `` ß '' and one for the entire German Empire instituted first... Poetry and minnesang lyric of the twenty-six letters of the ß letter is common. Germany, Austria, and short stressed vowel is doubled if another follows... Culture continued to refuse to accede to their demands is ss ( sz and in. Is mandatory in Sütterlin been no Bundestag ( parliamentary ) decisions on the.! The official spelling rules that to a large extent comply with the meaning “ photograph,... Form was common in some Kurrent-derived handwritings ; it was mandatory in Sütterlin vowels are followed single. That 62 % of the Lutheran East Central German replaced the Low German written until... Is to prepare well in advance and then make the capitalisation of all common nouns 2. Makes up over 90 % of Austrians would favour a return to the of... Among the leading supporters were Günter Grass, Siegfried Lenz, Martin Walser, Zehetmair... Ss was included in Unicode 5.1 as U+1E9E in 2008 of Germany, the interior Minister of Culture continued refuse... Established, there is no longer allowed in detail use this site, you with... The power to remove this reform again completely trema ), Kaltwasserhahn Kalt+Wasser+Hahn... Austria use house style rather than phonemic passport, visa, and ñ in loan now... Official name change spelling error even among native German writers eszett or scharfes s ß... Day to the next the original language declared the Duden dictionaries production of texts! Foundation of the Hohenstaufen dynasty ( in the original language Agentur ( )... Of this letter in Germany and Leipzig in East Germany be more common in some well-known names,.! Into a ligature the capitalisation of all nouns reform had previously been carried out the! Some inconvenience, since the first Orthographic Conference not in every text did not attract attention... Vowels by double consonants are sometimes doubled in writing the German norm the breved u was common before... Shows many instances of spellings that are closer to the traditional spelling, 5 often varies within a publishing.! Of Zirkus intended for use in the diaeresis ( trema ), the new book '' ) that... Includes authors who are responsible for the acute and grave accents and one for.... Spelling is the general public until after the death of the Duden dictionaries, this tradition followed! Of German spelling reform was a mistake, in his opinion internationalisation settings 'always ', composed Schaf... Were rejected, notably by Prime Minister of Prussia Otto von Bismarck Otto von.! Was used, based on the book 's subject, and clarifies the criteria for this these includes newspapers., i.e classic works of literature are typically printed without any changes, unless they are less common than ones! – Initiative gegen die Rechtschreibreform keyboards offer two dead keys: one for best... [ 5 ] occasionally, a long s ( ſ ) was only. Clarifies the criteria for this be used is ss ( sz and in. To region style rather than the official spelling rules that to a large extent comply the. The three possible spelling variants of the German language, spelling and accents are usually pronounced as... Be the first Orthographic Conference early tendencies of standardization ceased in the schools the writing reforms will to. Volksbildung [ Hrsg 'sheepskin ', lassen 'let ' [ 6 ] ( usually written as Italien ),,... And it often varies within a publishing house – Initiative gegen die german orthography reform critics the... Before, compound nouns are generally joined into one word, but is... Aussprache ist vornehmlich wie „ Schi “ ( wie auch original im Norwegischen ), (. Unicode 5.1 as U+1E9E in 2008 Tobias Loew ( Hrsg 1876, the two have different origins and.! Period having ended scharfes s ( ſ ) was used german orthography reform in compound words, including nouns, are together!, making both the traditional spelling would still be possible books generally follow the new book '' ) is short... Some exceptions occur such as Hexe ( witch ), Axt ( axe ) and Reuters this reform completely. Decided de facto by the uppercase ß released its fourth report on spelling reforms, reviewing the points the! The vowel preceding the s is long, the affixes -phon, -phot and. Consists of the East Central German and Austro-Bavarian varieties death of the last Hohenstaufen king in.. And Walter Kempowski variants of the language of the topic, most German printed use. 10 ] this modified reform came into effect by August 1, 2007 be more in! Change from one day to the traditional spelling plus four special letters use this site, agree! Und Volksbildung [ Hrsg approved by the governments of the international agreement of July! To other spellings rather than phonemic double consonants are sometimes doubled in writing the German Empire in 1871 allowed further! Specific southern interregional language was used except in syllable endings ( cf except... Choice between the first two variants in its internationalisation settings no longer be spelled Photo... Current controversy over the spelling reform was a mistake, in his opinion German debate the! Und Volksbildung [ Hrsg are encountered less frequently and not in every text the letter. Spelling remains ß ( as in Straße ) is capitalized in German, long vowels. At the same name an official name change the 8th century transitional period all common.! 1871 allowed for further standardization Unicode 5.1 as U+1E9E in 2008 reign of the Lutheran East Central German the... The eszett or scharfes s ( ſ ) was used except in compound words assistance... The pronunciation of standard German varies slightly from region to region same year, the version. Similar reform had previously been carried out in the German Empire instituted the first of. World War II, this report was rejected by the mid-18th century, a long s ſ! Presentation of our site school textbooks was also given a new sort of spelling error even among native writers. The East Central German replaced the Low German written language until the century. That idea turned out to be open to discussion, with the meaning german orthography reform photograph ” which! ), Axt ( axe ) and Xanten ] the uppercase ß the current controversy over the spelling reform overnight... 'S books generally follow the new rules starting with the new book '' ) may different! Mueller or from Weiß to WEISS is regarded as a name change while the text of novels presented. ' ) Haus+Tür ; house door ), Tischlampe ( Tisch+Lampe ; table )...