[16] It cannot be deprotonated in solution, but the conjugate base is known in forms such as methyllithium. Methane (US: /ˈmɛθeɪn/ or UK: /ˈmiːθeɪn/) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CH4 (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen). Additional hydrogen is obtained by the reaction of CO with water via the water-gas shift reaction. Below the oxygen replete seafloor, methanogens produce methane that is either used by other organisms or becomes trapped in gas hydrates. [43], Methane is an important greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 34 compared to CO2 (potential of 1) over a 100-year period, and 72 over a 20-year period. Methane is a tetrahedral molecule with four equivalent C–H bonds. Biogas power generation will be economically attractive for plant operators in the future, especially in peak load phases. Methane is also subjected to free-radical chlorination in the production of chloromethanes, although methanol is a more typical precursor.[27]. [48], Climate change can increase atmospheric methane levels by increasing methane production in natural ecosystems, forming a Climate change feedback. In general, methane reactions are difficult to control. As an environmentally friendly vehicle fuel, liquid methane enables long ranges with small tank volumes. Methane gas explosions are responsible for many deadly mining disasters. normal conditions for temperature and pressure, tolerate a reduction from 21% to 16% without ill effects, "Safety Datasheet, Material Name: Methane", Energy Content of some Combustibles (in MJ/kg), "Lumber Company Locates Kilns at Landfill to Use Methane – Energy Manager Today", "Natural Gas Cars: CNG Fuel Almost Free in Some Parts of the Country", "Why Combustions Are Always Exothermic, Yielding About 418 kJ per Mole of O2", https://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/hpep_report_2013.pdf, "The origin, source, and cycling of methane in deep crystalline rock biosphere", "Indications for an active petroleum system in the Laptev Sea, NE Siberia", "Methane Feedbacks to the Global Climate System in a Warmer World", IPCC. [36], Ruminants, such as cattle, belch methane, accounting for ~22% of the U.S. annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. The BE-4 uses liquid methane rather than more commonly used rocket fuels such as kerosene. Partial oxidation of methane to methanol is challenging because the reaction typically progresses all the way to carbon dioxide and water even with an insufficient supply of oxygen. Most of Earth's methane is biogenic and is produced by methanogenesis,[30][31] a form of anaerobic respiration only known to be conducted by some members of the domain Archaea. It is a group-14 hydride and the simplest alkane, and is the main constituent of natural gas. Methane … However, most rocket engine development efforts in the last 30 years have focused on using more traditional fuels such as hydrogen, kerosene, and earth storables, without any serious development or application of methane to propulsion systems. The methyl radical then reacts with a molecule of the halogen to form a molecule of the halomethane, with a new halogen atom as byproduct. In practice, a requirement for pure methane will be filled with a steel gas bottle from standard suppliers. This level is over twice as high as at any time in the last 400,000 years. When levels of the invisible gas are as low as 5 percent, the compound is explosive. It is liquefied using a cryogenic process. This approach allows for autogenous pressurization, which is the use of gasified propellant to pressurize liquid propellant. Cryogenic generators based on the Stirling principle offer sea and inland shipping companies a highly economical solution for the pressure-dependent cooling of liquid methane during shipping, the prevention of roll-over effects in LNG tanks and the reliquefaction of boil-off gas. [17], Despite the strength of its C–H bonds, there is intense interest in catalysts that facilitate C–H bond activation in methane (and other lower numbered alkanes).[18]. [10] As a gas it is flammable over a range of concentrations (5.4–17%) in air at standard pressure. However, as currently very large amounts of natural gas are used in power plants (e.g. [9] The familiar smell of natural gas as used in homes is achieved by the addition of an odorant, usually blends containing tert-butylthiol, as a safety measure. [83], "CH4" redirects here. It decomposes to steam and oxygen when passed over a catalyst. With the possible exception of Mars, it is believed to have come from abiotic processes. Methanium can also be produced as diluted solutions from methane with superacids. ERT supplies low-temperature systems for the safe, economical production, storage and use of liquid methane. Thermogenic methane components are typically considered to be relic (from an earlier time). Low-temperature generators based on the Stirling principle generate temperatures below -162°C (111.15 K) after only a few minutes for the liquefaction of methane. - Definition of CH4-C - CH4-C stands for Methane-carbon ratio", "U.S. Methane Emissions 1990 – 2020: Inventories, Projections, and Opportunities for Reductions (EPA 430-R-99-013)", "Fed official: Still too soon for W.Va. mine rescue", CDC – Handbook for Methane Control in Mining, Hydrogen chalcogenides (Group 16 hydrides), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Methane&oldid=990456967, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Chemical articles with unknown parameter in Chembox, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, James Michael McBride (1999) "Development of systematic names for the simple alkanes". 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